Monday, June 30, 2014

Summer Boundaries

Inside Higher Ed
June 30th, 2014

   I’ve written in the past about the need to get away from it all during the summer months, to leave work behind for a while. I’ve also noted the harsh reality that for most of us on nine-month appointments (by far the majority of teacher-scholars in academe) summer is one of the few opportunities to make dramatic progress in furthering one’s research agenda. The three-month “vacation” from work is, as you already know, a myth. Even though it is impractical for most of us to ignore work for the duration of our “off” months, we do need to take steps to protect our time away from campus and the classroom, in order to preserve time for relaxation, and also for research.
  There is also the issue that we should not be working for free. Historically, it has been relatively common for some faculty members, particularly those with lower-level administrative responsibilities, to  be sort of informally on the hook during the summer months, expected to respond to email and keep up with loose threads, but to go uncompensated for their work during that time period. In addition to being a form of de facto exploitation, such patterns contribute to the gradual but steady marginalization of academic labor across multiple fronts. In addition to the well-documented “adjuctification” of academic labor, expecting something for nothing, which universities increasingly do in such scenarios, further reduces the value of academic labor in general.

At Mellon, Signs of Change

Chronicle of Higher Education
June 29th, 2014

   The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has a reputation for moving in mysterious ways. For 45 years, it has steadily handed out money—lots of it—to sustain the humanities and the performing arts. As times have gotten tougher, Mellon’s deep pockets have become increasingly important. The foundation tends to attract an unusual level of anxiety and interest, like a rich uncle whose quirks and whims keep poorer relations on their toes.
   Some observers worry that Mellon is too opaque in its operations and guarded about its intentions. It’s not unusual for potential grantees to scramble to put together grant proposals in response to an unexpected call from Mellon, as happened with university presses in 2007, when the foundation invited them to submit ideas for multi-press first-book collaborations. Unlike many other grant makers, it rarely promotes its activities, preferring to stay out of the spotlight. Critics say—usually off the record—that its circle of grantees is too small and that it has disproportionately favored elite colleges and universities. A Chronicle analysis of the last decade and a half of Mellon grants supports that claim. Still, the foundation is widely admired for using its money and clout to reinforce the idea that, in an age of "disruption" and the veneration of science and technology, "the humanities and the arts are central to any life that one should want to live," as Mellon’s then-president, Don M. Randel, wrote in his 2012 annual report.

Controlled Crash?

Inside Higher Ed
June 30th, 2014

   WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Department of Education has until tomorrow to reach an agreement with Corinthian Colleges on a plan to sell or shut down the for-profit chain’s 107 campuses. If they fail, the federal government could lose more than $1.2 billion in discharged student loans.
   That figure was included in a legal filing Corinthian submitted last Thursday in a California court. The document was in response to a lawsuit from California’s attorney general, Kamala D. Harris. Harris last week asked the court to make Corinthian stop recruiting new students.

Friday, June 27, 2014

Actually, California, Go Ahead and Order That Uber

Inside Higher Ed
June 27th, 2014

   Good news for employees in the University of California System who enjoy a range of transportation and lodging options: Peer-to-peer services such as Airbnb, Lyft and Uber aren't banned after all.
   "There was no decision from [the university system]," a spokeswoman said in response to news -- based on an email the University of California at Los Angeles sent to employees -- that services had been banned for "insurance concerns."

More than MOOCs

June 2014

   On August 13, 2013, William C. Powers, the president of the University of Texas at Austin, sent out a campuswide e-mail about educational technology. While campuswide e-mails seldom make news, this one did because few university presidents ever address this particular subject. “Rapidly advancing technology is changing virtually every aspect of our lives,” Powers wrote, “and education is no exception. The changing landscape presents challenges, but it also gives us great opportunities. We need to lead change in higher education, both for ourselves and for the future.” Powers highlighted a series of pedagogical innovations such as flipped classrooms, blended learning, and massive open online courses (MOOCs). His emphasis on these developments served as encouragement to faculty to stay at higher education’s technological cutting edge.
   Traditionally, individual faculty members have had almost complete control over how they teach. Powers indicated that he had no intention of interfering with this traditional faculty prerogative. “Without compromising our deep commitment to the academic freedom of a world-class faculty,” explained Powers, “we should recognize that these technologies amplify the visibility and impact of individual faculty and staff as representatives of the University on a global scale.” While such language is reassuring, maintaining this balance between academic freedom and efficiency is more easily said than done.

How to Develop Network Citizenship Behavior

June 2014

   In a university environment, leadership needs to be seen as a collective, not an individual, quality. Those in leadership positions should trade their role as a director of action for that of a facilitator who promotes mutual learning. They should encourage members of their staffs to learn from one another’s expertise. The learning process should operate as a cascade, starting with the individual, expanding to departments and organizations, and ultimately extending between organizations across the network.
   Colleges and universities are establishing networks, such as consortia, to formally tie institutional  members together and to share resources. These hubs foster a spirit of cooperation underpinned by trust.

Labor Conditions at N.Y.U.’s Abu Dhabi Campus to Be Investigated by U.S. Firm

The New York Times
June 27th, 2014

   New York University and the government of Abu Dhabi said this week that an investigative firm headed by a former federal prosecutor had been hired to conduct an inquiry into labor conditions at the university’s new Middle East campus.
   The move comes a month after The New York Times reported on widespread labor abuses in the construction of N.Y.U. Abu Dhabi, which opens to students in the fall. The firm, Nardello & Company, which has offices around the world, will “conduct an independent review of allegations of labor violations,” N.Y.U. announced on Wednesday, “with a focus on those recently reported in the media.”

Read full article here

Mean Tweets, Academic Style

Inside Higher Ed
June 27th, 2014

    In the spirit of Jimmy Kimmel’s “Celebrities Read Mean Tweets,” a Canadian university’s student newspaper posted a video this week that features professors reading aloud unflattering reviews from the website Rate My Professors.
    Professors rarely become celebrities. But they’re often accused of taking themselves too seriously. The Peak, the student-run weekly newspaper at Simon Fraser University, a 35,000-student public research university in British Columbia, sought to have the university’s faculty engage in some self-mockery.

Thursday, June 26, 2014

Adjuncts at Point Park U. Vote to Unionize

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 25th, 2014

   Adjunct instructors at Point Park University, a private institution in Pittsburgh, have voted to form a union affiliated with the United Steelworkers, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette has reported. The vote was 172 to 79 in favor of unionization.
   The United Steelworkers’ Adjunct Faculty Association previously mounted a similar union drive at another Pittsburgh institution, Duquesne University, where adjuncts voted in 2012 to unionize. Duquesne has challenged that union election, arguing that as a Roman Catholic institution it is exempt from the jurisdiction of the National Labor Relations Board.

Udacity, AT&T Team Up in Online Ed

Digits - Tech News
June 16th, 2014

   Technology companies often say that U.S. higher education is failing to prepare students for the jobs of the future. Now AT&T, working with online education company Udacity, is trying to make a difference.
   Udacity is one of the companies that helped popularize what are called MOOCs–massive online education courses–that are designed to bring college-level education to a global audience without going to a campus. The effort with AT&T is its first degree program that could teach students the kinds of skills needed to win jobs at the telecom giant.
   Focusing on entry-level software skills, Udacity says its new “NanoDegree” will be offered online, involve less than a year of coursework, and cost about $200 per month. AT&T in turn will offer paid internships to some NanoDegree graduates.

Accreditors Are Urged to Help Safeguard Academic Freedom Abroad

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 26th, 2014

   Scholars at Risk is best known for its work to help scholars persecuted in their home countries find temporary academic positions abroad. So Robert Quinn, the advocacy group’s director, would seem an unlikely speaker at a meeting of accreditors.
   Yet Mr. Quinn’s presence on Wednesday at the Council for Higher Education Accreditation’s Summer Workshop is evidence of how, as more colleges venture abroad, they must wrestle with the challenges of extending academic freedom and other American higher-education values overseas. Of late, several cases—including Yale University’s new joint liberal-arts college in Singapore and an incident involving Wellesley College and a partner university in China—have raised academic-freedom concerns.

Fallen Giant

Inside Higher Ed
June 26th, 2014

   WASHINGTON -- The Obama administration now can claim partial credit for the demise of one of the largest for-profit college chains. And both critics and supporters of the sector expect the federal scrutiny to continue.
   “I have no reason to be optimistic about an era of constructive collaboration,” said Steve Gunderson, president and CEO of the Association of Private Sector Colleges and Universities, which is the industry’s primary trade group.
He said for-profits are facing a “regulatory assault” by a White House that is “ideologically opposed to this sector.”
   On Monday the U.S. Department of Education and Corinthian Colleges announced the bare bones of a deal to sell off and close all of the publicly traded for-profit’s 107 campuses. In exchange the department freed up $16 million in frozen payments to the company, which owns the Heald College, Everest and WyoTech chains.

Wednesday, June 25, 2014

No Airbnb or Uber for U. of California Employees

Inside Higher Ed
June 25th, 2014

University of California employees will from now on have to hail regular cabs and book standard hotel rooms when traveling on official business, as the system’s Office of Risk Services has decided to ban the use of peer-to-peer services such as Airbnb, Lyft and Uber.
Those and other service startups “should not be used because of concerns that these services are not fully regulated and do not protect users to the same extent as a commercially regulated business,” according to an email sent out to the University of California at Los Angeles campus. “As the market matures and these businesses evolve, the University may reconsider whether reimbursement of travel costs provided by peer-to-peer or sharing businesses will be allowed."

House and Senate Offer Different Visions for Renewal of Higher Education Act

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 25th, 2014

   House Republicans and Senate Democrats unveiled dueling visions of higher-education reform on Tuesday, with both groups arguing that their approach would make college more affordable, help students reach more-informed decisions, and hold institutions accountable to students and taxpayers.
   In the Senate, Democrats released a summary of legislation to reauthorize the Higher Education Act that they plan to introduce on Wednesday. As reported last week in The Chronicle, the bill would create several new grant programs aimed at reducing college costs, crack down on for-profit colleges, and take steps to reduce student-loan defaults.

Google Will Finance Carnegie Mellon’s MOOC Research

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 24th, 2014

   Carnegie Mellon University’s receiving a grant to study MOOCs is no surprise. But the source’s identity is bound to raise eyebrows.
   Google announced on Tuesday that it would give Carnegie Mellon $300,000 in each of the next two years through the Google Focused Research Award program. Google can fund the research for a third year at the same price if it chooses.
   The university’s research will focus on “data driven” approaches to research on massive open online courses, including “techniques for automatically analyzing and providing feedback on student work,” according to a news release. The goal, it said, is to develop platforms intelligent enough to mimic the traditional classroom experience.

Tuesday, June 24, 2014

California Grad Employee Contract Shows Reform Works

Labor Notes
June 24th, 2014

   This week 13,000 teaching assistants, readers, and tutors at the University of California ratified a new four-year contract.
   We made big gains on both bread-and-butter and social justice issues, with a 17 percent wage  increase over four years, new language on class size, longer paid parental leaves, a larger child care subsidy with expanded coverage, a new committee to equalize opportunities for undocumented students, and a mandate to create lactation stations and all-gender bathrooms. (See box.)
    It’s a good moment to look back on how we got here. This is the first contract since our reform caucus, Academic Workers for a Democratic Union, took the helm of our union, UAW Local 2865, in the spring of 2011

The price of Confucius Institutes

The Washington Post
June 21st, 2014

   EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGES between the United States and China have grown to record numbers. With these programs come scholarly value but also risks.
   Confucius Institutes offer an example of this trade-off. These centers, heavily funded and supported by the Chinese government, offer Chinese language and culture classes around the world. But unlike Germany’s Goethe-Institut or the U.K.’s British Council, many are established directly inside U.S. universities. It’s this combination of linkage and Chinese control that carries risk.
   Last week, the American Association of University Professors called on almost a hundred U.S. universities to reexamine their ties with Beijing’s signature cultural outpost. “Occasionally university administrations have entered into partnerships that sacrificed the integrity of the university,” the association wrote. “Confucius Institutes function as an arm of the Chinese state and are allowed to ignore academic freedom.” 

Ending a Well-Paid Presidency Often Comes at High Cost

The Chronicle of Higher Education
May 18th, 2014

   The three highest-paid public-college leaders in the 
nation have something in common: They earned hundreds of thousands of dollars on their way out the door.
   The size of the parting packages given to these men—two who resigned amid long-churning controversies and one 
who quit unexpectedly—demonstrates just how expensive it can be for a college to end the presidency of a well-paid chief.
   E. Gordon Gee, the popular and gaffe-prone former president of Ohio State University, earned more than $6-million in 2012-13, making him the nation’s top-paid college leader for that period, a Chronicle analysis has found. Mr. Gee has maintained that he resigned of his own accord last summer, but the decision came as trustees expressed impatience and disappointment with his often-ill-considered jokes.

Status of the Humanities: ‘We Haven’t Quite Recovered From the Recession’

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 19th, 2014

   The economy may be showing signs of recovery from the great economic downturn of 2008, but financial support for the humanities hasn’t bounced back to its prerecession levels. That’s one of the findings in a report being released on Thursday by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
    The release of the report marks the relaunch of the website of the Humanities Indicators, a long-term project of the academy’s that collects all kinds of statistics and trend data about the humanities. Inspired by the Science and Engineering Indicators, published regularly by the National Science Board, the Humanities Indicators made their debut in 2009. They’re meant to provide a detailed picture of humanities activity at every level, inside and outside academe.

A Win for Free Speech

Inside Higher Ed
June 20th, 2014

   WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously Thursday that a community college employee who testified about an Alabama legislator's no-show job had First Amendment protection when he did so. The ruling allows the employee -- whose job was subsequently eliminated -- to pursue a claim that he lost his position in retaliation for his testimony.
   Lower courts had ruled that the employee had no First Amendment protection in such a circumstance. The ruling clarifies that community college employees (and public employees generally) do have First Amendment protection when testifying truthfully under oath. While that is a relatively narrow circumstance in the range of all speech by public college and university employees, advocates for faculty free speech rights were still cheered by the decision. They said any affirmation of public employees' free speech rights is a good thing, and noted some parts of the decision that reaffirmed rights specific to college and university faculty members.
    "It would be antithetical to our jurisprudence to conclude that the very kind of speech necessary to prosecute corruption by public officials -- speech by public employees regarding information learned through their employment -- may never form the basis for a First Amendment retaliation claim," wrote Justice Sonia Sotomayor in the court's decision. "Such a rule would place public employees who witness corruption in an impossible position, torn between the obligation to testify truthfully and the desire to avoid retaliation and keep their jobs."

Monday, June 23, 2014

Changing Practices in Faculty Evaluation

AAUP National
June 2014

   Years ago, the process of faculty evaluation carried few or none of the sudden-death implications that characterize contemporary evaluation practices. But now, as the few to be chosen for promotion and tenure become fewer and faculty mobility decreases, the decision to promote or grant tenure can have an enormous impact on a professor’s career. At the same time, academic administrators are under growing pressure to render sound decisions in the face of higher operating costs, funding shortfalls, and the mounting threat posed by giant corporations that have moved into higher education. Worsening economic conditions have focused sharper attention on evaluation of faculty performance, with the result that faculty members are assessed through formalized, systematic methods.
   This study was undertaken to determine whether contemporary methods of evaluation differ significantly from those previously used. For comparative purposes, base data were derived from our 2000 study, which concluded that meaningful evaluation of faculty performance was rare and that judgments frequently were based on information gathered in haphazard, even chaotic, fashion.

The Erosion of Faculty Rights

The Chronicle of Higher Education
May 19th, 2014

   In the rush to online education, faculty members have been signing contracts that abrogate the ownership of their classes, erode their collective interests, and threaten the quality of higher education. No standard (let alone best) practice has yet emerged, and faculty members are largely in the dark about what is at stake.
   Put simply, the stakes are huge. Online education is the new frontier where the traditional rights of faculty members and the quality of instruction are up for grabs. It is a frontier that threatens to turn all faculty members, including those on the tenure track, into teachers who “work for hire.”
   In some ways, our own campus, the University of California at Berkeley, is typical. In 2013, without any faculty consultation, the administration signed a contract with MIT-Harvard’s edX in a scramble to join the club of private elite universities and private spinoffs that are developing online-education platforms and course content targeted at underfunded public-education markets. Within Berkeley itself, there are in-house platforms developed by a newly established, relatively under-the-radar entity, called the Berkeley Resource Center for Online Education, that operates fully online or hybrid master’s-degree programs at the School of Public Health and the Haas School of Business, as well as a variety of undergraduate, summer, and extension courses online now being offered for certification and for credit.

UIC Faculty Overwhelmingly Ratify First Contracts

AAUP National
June 23rd, 2014

Voting concludes with 98 percent in support by first faculty at a top-tier research university in Illinois to form a union

   CHICAGO – After nearly two years of collective bargaining with university administration, today faculty at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) overwhelmingly ratified their first labor contracts, which will dramatically improve work life and professional conditions for tenure-track and non-tenure track members. The tentative agreement reached with management on April 16 was ratified with a decisive 98 percent of the vote this week.
   Faculty made history in 2011 by becoming the first faculty from a large research university in Illinois to organize a union – the UIC United Faculty (UICUF).

More 'Intentionality' Needed

Inside Higher Education
June 13th, 2014

    NEW YORK – What’s the purpose of higher education in the 21st century? It’s a lofty question that participants at a symposium on changing faculty models here acknowledged they didn't have the answers to. But the administrators and other higher education experts here agreed that colleges and universities have to define their evolving mission before they can figure out how to reallocate their faculty work force.
    “The question we need to get our heads around,” said Gregg Kvistad, provost at the University of Denver, a private research institution that has few private competitors for hundreds of miles, “is what does higher education do in the 21st century? If we can understand that better, we can get a better consensus about what this work force should look like.”
    Centuries-old “church” and German-research university models on which the American higher education system is based -- and the tenure system imported along with them -- may no longer be “appropriate” for today’s “violent and fluid” higher education landscape, he said.

Friday, June 20, 2014

B.C. Teachers Strike 2014: Mediation Requested By Union

Huffington Post: Education
June 19th, 2014

   VANCOUVER - With no sign of a deal on the horizon, British Columbia's unionized teachers called Thursday for mediation in hopes an independent party could turn the key in deadlocked negotiations.
   The BC Teachers' Federation asked for the third-party mediator three days into a full-scale walkout by more than 40,000 teachers across the province.
   "Without having some extra support of a mediator, this could drag on," said union president Jim Iker, adding that he has requested veteran mediator Vince Ready step in.

Stuck in the Middle

The Chronicle of Higher Education
April 7th, 2014

   Associate professors, in theory, should be hitting a stride in their academic careers. In the middle ranks of faculty, they have typically earned tenure and started to take on broader responsibilities in their departments, juggling more service and governance roles with their teaching and research.
   But the earning power of these professors is diminishing compared with their peers in ranks above and below them.
   While pay for associate professors has grown by 5.6 percent since 2000, after adjusting for inflation, salaries for assistant professors have increased by 9 percent, according to a Chronicle analysis of data provided by the American Association of University Professors. The gap is widening even more between associate professors and full professors, whose pay has increased by 11.7 percent.

Higher Education's Missing Faculty Voices

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 2nd, 2014

   Conversations about what we need to know about higher education, both to rate college and university performance and to provide information to prospective students and their parents, leave one word largely unspoken: faculty.
   A recent report by the Institute for Higher Education Policy, "Mapping the Postsecondary Data Domain," mentions faculty members only once—as users, not as subjects of data. And the report is only the latest in an effusion of discussions of higher-education data needs. The same neglect occurred at a daylong Department of Education symposium on the subject in February. While pondering what we need to know to improve and reform higher education, students, administrators, and researchers were mentioned repeatedly, but the faculty members who teach those students received only rare and fleeting attention.

Thursday, June 19, 2014

Addressing the Faculty Crisis

The Academe Blog

   If American higher education is going to continue to aspire to excellence, its institutions need to address and reverse the growing reliance on adjuncts as teachers. Not only is this exploitative of the adjuncts (to say nothing of the students), but it reduces our colleges and universities to factories, effectively excluding academic freedom and removing research components from teaching responsibilities. Two of the three aspects of a professor’s job, teaching, scholarship and service, are eliminated, for adjuncts are expected to do nothing but complete classroom activities.
   Though reliance on adjuncts has risen primarily because it is a cheap alternative to tenured and tenure-track faculty, it also fits into the corporate top-down models of governance, models of efficiency that see shared governance as a waste of time and energy. To date, college and university administrations have been given little incentive to move in another direction. To them, use of adjuncts provides a situation where they not only save money but they get rid of pesky faculty involvement in what they see as exclusively their own responsibilities. They are not going to make a change unless countering incentives, or new oversight structures, are offered.

AAUP Members Are Warned of Growing Threats to Academic Freedom

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 13th, 2014

   The last few academic years have brought a wave of new threats to academic freedom, arising both from controversies fanned by social media and from pressure on state lawmakers to restrict speech at public colleges, members of the American Association of University Professors were told here on    Thursday at the group’s annual conference.
   Both Henry F. Reichman, who is chairman of the AAUP’s Committee A on Academic Freedom, and top officials of the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a free-speech advocacy group known as FIRE, described a host of recent efforts to punish colleges’ faculty members for controversial statements or to limit what faculty members can say.

Will ASU Online’s Starbucks Baristas Outearn Their Professors?

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 19th, 2014

Amid the public-relations back and forth over Starbucks’s new partnership with Arizona State University’s online degree program, an online comment caught our eye:
This is a major PR boost for ASU as well, and considering many adjuncts make less than the baristas they'll be teaching, I doubt ASU is losing money here. —Steve Foerster
Forgetting, for a moment, the financial big picture, is it possible that Starbucks baristas will be better paid than their instructors?

Status of the Humanities: ‘We Haven’t Quite Recovered From the Recession’

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 19th, 2014

   The economy may be showing signs of recovery from the great economic downturn of 2008, but financial support for the humanities hasn’t bounced back to its prerecession levels. That’s one of the findings in a report being released on Thursday by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
   The release of the report marks the relaunch of the website of the Humanities Indicators, a long-term project of the academy’s that collects all kinds of statistics and trend data about the humanities. Inspired by the Science and Engineering Indicators, published regularly by the National Science Board, the Humanities Indicators made their debut in 2009. They’re meant to provide a detailed picture of humanities activity at every level, inside and outside academe.

Senate Bill to Renew Higher Education Act Is Democrats’ Wish List

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 19th, 2014

    Senate Democrats are poised to introduce a bill to reauthorize the Higher Education Act that would create a unit-record system for tracking individual students, allow borrowers to refinance their student-loan debt, and reverse some recent cuts in the Pell Grant program, according to several sources who have previewed a draft of the measure.
   The bill, which lawmakers are expected to introduce next week, would also crack down on for-profit colleges, make the accreditation process more transparent, and create grant programs to encourage innovation and dual enrollment, the sources said.

Pensacola State Faculty Rejects Contract Over Course Loads

Inside Higher Ed
June 18th, 2014

The Faculty Association at Pensacola State College in Florida has rejected a contract deal in part because course load and overage concerns, the Pensacola News-Journal reported. Paige Anderson, an English instructor who is president of the American Federation of Teachers- and National Education Association-affiliated faculty union, said the proposed contract would have been punitive to the college's vocational, clinical health occupations and collegiate high school faculty. Anderson said the contract called for the elimination of overload for those faculty and a renegotiation of course load "points," so that those instructors would have had to teach 4.5 additional hours per week, to 22.5 hours. The rest of the faculty would have been unaffected, with a 15-credit course load per semester. But Anderson said the move was a show of solidarity for the minority group of affected faculty members and concern over the college's ability to retain and attract health professions faculty, including nurses, under those terms. Anderson said state funding for the affected fields was lower than for other disciplines, and the college was attempting to compensate on the backs of the faculty.

Wednesday, June 18, 2014

Believe It or Not, in Some Fields Colleges Can’t Find Anybody to Hire

The Chronicle of Higher Education
June 18th, 2014

The academic job market is often considered a buyer’s market. In many disciplines it’s common for colleges to have their pick among hundreds of qualified applicants for an opening. But in some fields the opposite is true, and colleges scramble for months, even years, to fill teaching positions.

People who have earned Ph.D.’s in certain fields, such as health care, can often earn more elsewhere—and they often do opt to work outside of higher education. And in other fields, like criminal justice, undergraduate demand is growing but the number of Ph.D.’s in the field remains limited.